Small Private Online Course (SPOC)
As a result of the increase in student quantity, and the questioning of teaching quality of MOOCs, universities have begun new trends in the post-
MOOC age and developed new approaches termed SPOCs (Delgado-Kloos etal.,2015). SPOCs follow the flipped classroommodel (Combefis etal., 2014). Through the educational use of SPOCs, students can learn attheir own pace, and revisit video courses. They can check on their development through quizzes at the end of videos. Teachers can also evaluate students and measure their skills in abetter manner in accordance with the flipped classroom model (Martínez-Muñoz, & Pulido, 2015). Fox (2013) compared MOOCs with the SPOC model and found that enrolment was quadrupled with in SPOCs. Utilizing MOOC material in a SPOC format is a key role in the efficiency of the educational process.
Big Open Online Course (BOOC)
BOOC was first introduced in 2013 by open and free courses initiated with 500 participants at the University of Indiana (Hickey, 2013a). The greatest advantage compared to MOOCs is the
possibility for interactive courses by limiting the number of participants to 500 individuals (Sanchez-Gordon & Lujan-Mora, 2014). Hickey (2013b) indicates that the reason for using “big” rather than “massive” in the definition is due to systems not being prepared for the “massive”. Google has provided support for this University of Indiana initiative through Google Course Builder, imbuing further interactive features and providing the opportunity to integrate smaller courses into larger ones. The wikifolio format used in BOOC systems utilize peer-commenting, peer-endorsement,
and peer-promotion strategies (Hickey, 2013b). In these courses, the understanding is that the interactive learning environment provided to 25 students may also be applied to 500 students without issue, and as such in addition to wikifolio(s) they utilize peer assessments, formal on-demand assessments, and digital badges (Hickey, 2013a).
Classically Offered Online Classes (COOC)
COOC is a model in which courses are 100% online, which aims to increase quality by focusing on reducing educational costs. In this model the aim is to develop a new model by combining the traditional classroom education model with the strengths of online learning. The fundamental difference between this model and MOOCs is the ambiguity of the concept of openness (Hoom & Shuwer, 2014; Horton, 2013).
Community Open Online Course (COOC)
COOCs are courses focused on group and community work, in which each individual contributes to the course, ensuring that deciding what and how to learn is made easier. COOCs are based on the notion that education cannot be effective if it is limited by universities and other educational institutions, and made rigid by standardization and accreditation, and should instead be based on the concept of personal development wherein learning should be shaped by the curiosity and enthusiasm of individuals (Frsa, 2015).
Digital Open Courses at Scale (DOCS)
Kim (2015) indicates that in DOCS, the terms open and course remain identical to MOOCs, while online is replaced by digital, and massive is replaced by scale. The reasoning behind the
use of the word digital lies in the fact that courses may be offered through mobile applications rather than through web browsers, and as such the course content may be followed not only
via computers, but also using smartphones. The switch from massive to scale is said to underline the quality of the community and learning process rather than the sheer number of
Distributed Online Collaborative Course (DOCC)
These courses developed in collaboration with FemTechNet (2013) participants are based on feminist pedagogy and networked learning, and have been adopted by many higher education
institutions in the U.S.. The model for the course is based on the principles of distributed learning, knowledge building, and networking (Chauhan, 2014). One aspect in which they
differ from MOOCs is that the learning process is distributed and collaborative, where knowledge is not passed on through transmission, but rather established through a process of
circulation (Juhasz, 2013).
Game-based Massive Open Online Course (gMOOC)
The reason gMOOCs are called next-gen MOOCs (Jones & Singer, 2014) is that they focus on games and game based learning subjects in MOOCs. Using games, gMOOCs cover complex
social objects in virtual gaming environments. They solve real problems in a meaningful way through gamification. gMOOCs stand firmly against older educational systems and claim that
the true potential of the learner and instructor can be realized through writing and rhetoric based on meaningful, social, and direct knowledge production (Jones & Singer, 2014).
Hybrid Open Online Course (HOOC)
The HOOC model applied by the University of Pittsburgh offers courses both online and onsite simultaneously. Online and onsite students may participate in sessions synchronously, they may tweet, and they may share their ideas through other discussion applications (Brown, 2015). In HOOCs, focus is gathered on interaction by establishing a bridge between on-campus classes and online classes (Negrea, 2014).
In addition to incorporating established MOOC elements, iMOOCs utilize a hybrid learning model in which Moodle and Elgg learning platforms are integrated. The pilot studies for iMOOC were conducted at the Universidade Aberta (UAb), and it was the MOOC with the highest number of participants conducted in Portuguese. The most significant aspect of the iMOOC approach is the ensuring of a high level of transparency throughout the learning process. Registration is only required on an institutional level, and all content other than registration is available for open access. It is based on both xMOOC and cMOOC principles (Rocio et al., 2015).
Little Open Online Course (LOOC)
The University of Maine at Presque Isle endeavoured to offer small scale high touch open courses, and has started offering its first courses through the LOOC approach, also known as
the little brother of MOOCs. These courses are anti-massive, based on a high level of feedback from the instructor, and pave the way for formal credits. Unlike MOOCs, these courses offer
personalized feedback and are more localized, smaller scale applications (Kolowich, 2012).
Local Access Points (LAPs)
The LAPs approach is defined as a type of post-MOOC that increases interaction by physically connecting learners and instructors from a local presence perspective in addition to incorporating videoconferencing, collaborative learning, virtual learning environments, cloud based learning, and rapid feedback (Dominique, 2013).
Local Open Online Course (LOOC)
LOOCs are courses directed at students and teachers in local universities, along with local industries and communities, which aim to effectively utilize social media. They were derived
from the lack of coverage by MOOCs and SPOCs. LOOCs not only offer video courses, but ensure all participants in a region are able to meet each other, share information, and
collaboratively design the courses (Qarabash & Olivier, 2014).
Massive Open Online Research (MOOR)
As another MOOC variant, the MOOR model was first applied to the Bioinformatic Algorithms course at the University of California (Chauhan, 2014). It is a new MOOC variant that allows academics from different countries, along with learners from different countries and cultures to conduct research together on a global scale (Haider, 2013). In other words, MOOR is the researched focused variant of MOOC (Hosler, 2014).
Micro Open Online Course (mOOC)
The OER Foundation for the OER University (OERu) in collaboration with the e-Learning Research Lab at the University of Canterbury designed a system named SP4Ed. The key
characteristic of this case study is that learners are offered connectivist based courses through a small course prototype (Mackintosh, 2015).
Quality/Qualification Massive Open Online Course (qMOOC)
qMOOCs offer an educational framework based on quality and qualification. Three educational paradigms must be achieved in qMOOCs: deep learning experiences, problem-focused education, and 3D virtual immersive environments. The most prominent example of qMOOCs is the MOOCAgora application. In qMOOCs, formal academic degrees are not a primary concern (Mystakidis & Berki, 2015).
Selective Open Online Course (SOOC)
Shimabukuro (2013) specifically compares SOOCs to SPOCs, and indicates that while SPOCs may not always be private, SOOCs may prove more effective than SPOCs. SOOCs are based
on the notion that MOOCs and SPOCs must be different and innovative compared to traditional online courses by being more selective. While everyone should be able to apply to a
course and no participant limit should be imposed, enrolment should be limited. SOOCs are thus free, but smaller scaled compared to MOOCs (Shimabukuro, 2013).
Self-Paced Online Course (SPOC)
SPOCs are flexible, open access, online courses allowing the opportunity for independent study in which students may complete lessons whenever they choose and at their own pace
(Bogner, Dodd & Rash, 2013).
Social Massive Open Online Course (ECO sMOOC)
The s prefix in this MOOC variant refers to social in that these types of MOOCs incorporate a greater degree of social interaction and participation; while the prefix is also considered to
refer to the term seamless in that the courses are accessible from different platforms and may be integrated in real life experiences. Compared to MOOCs, focus is placed on the concepts of
equity, social inclusion, quality, diversity, autonomy, and openness. These courses see more frequent application in Europe (Morgado et al., 2014).
Synchronous Massive Open Online Courses (SMOC)
SMOCs aim to achieve the instruction of a high number of student groups with a real time online classroom approach. To this end, SMOCs aim to increase student participation, strengthen the sense of community among students, and establish the classroom sensation through synchronous lessons (UTNews, 2013). The most recent SMOC example from the University of Texas at Austin was conducted with a 10,000-student limit. Instructors offered courses through an xMOOC model by applying techniques such as adaptive learning, group chats, live lectures, online readings, and classroom discussions (Chauhan, 2014). Anyone could attend a lesson conducted on certain days by paying a predefined fee. Learners are not static, but rather in a state of interaction throughout the semester (Straumsheim, 2013).
Vocational Open Online Courses (VOOC)
VOOCs are an approach that is defined by bite -sized training, wherein completion of the course takes approximately 1 hour (Virtual College, 2015). VOOCs differ from MOOCs through different target audiences, different requirements, and different vocational pedagogies. VOOCs aim to provide quick, cheap, easily utilized, scalable, low cost vocational skills (UFI, 2015).